Wink’s “Winkshops” (workshop) are presented nationwide. He has presented at numerous state, regional, national, and local conferences/agencies even online. Wink can be booked for the following Winkshops and can work with your organization to develop material and presentations that best suit your local community. Wink's workshops are designed for ASL Professionals and can be adapted for hearing and Deaf students.
(NEW) Depiction in Interpreting, How and When?
Participants should be familiar with the following concepts, as only a refresher will be provided: constructed action, classifiers, partitioning, unrealized inceptives, and indicating verbs. This session bring these aspects together for working and aspiring interpreters. This workshop presents the view that English linguistic items and structures evoke conceptual content that can guide interpretation. Once we see these structures and how they symbolize meaning as they are derived from conceptualization, the depiction options narrow to a more suitable list. Construal will be of paramount importance and will be discussed at length with detailed attention given to cognitive semantics. For example, these four sentences evoke three different scenes:
The farmer caught the rabbit
The rabbit was caught by the former
The rabbit was caught
I saw the farmer catch the rabbit
All four of these structures can inform how we construct our interpretation. Simply examining the vantage point they provide can narrow the options of who to become (constructed action/surrogate). Examining these constructions in terms of passive vs. active voice can also guide our options.
When interpreters internalize how structures in language evoke not only conceptual content, but also a specific way of viewing said content (the construal), the method of depicting the construal will become more apparent. Workshop participants will first work sentence by sentence to examine structures in source messages, discuss the options to depict, and then reexamine all structures to constrict the available options in order to construct a truly equivalent target message. *Presented in ASL*
Working Proposal for Expansions using Depiction
The meanings of words do not reside in the words themselves nor do they reside as preexisting structures in the mind. Word meaning is dynamically created in our minds while we hear/see/create utterances. This inevitably causes problems when communicating, especially communicating something that was originally created in a completely different language — such is the plight of the interpreter and the translator. There are multiple of problems that can arise, however we will focus on one for this workshop: minimal utterances that communicate a maximal amount of information conceptually and how to manage the conceptual transfer into another language.
In other words, when should I expand when using depiction? Relying on cognitive studies we see how language works in the mind. This has lead to a working proposal for how to manage a situation where the source does not explicitly say something, but it does communicate it conceptually. In addition, when is too much? What kind of parameters should we impose on ourselves so that we do not change the meaning of the source utterance? These points will be discussed in this workshop with the aim to provide tools on how to determine what can be brought from our conceptual world into the target language. *Presented in ASL*
“Into” and “Enter” what is the difference? Examining Structures to Improve Conceptualization
Beyond their respective parts of speech, what are the differences between the words, “into” and “enter”? What about “Explode” and “Explosion”? These words have different conceptual meanings, in that your mind sees them differently. What can this do for us as language learners? Learning how your mind categorizes meaning and how meanings are manifested in language can change the way you look at language and the world. This workshop focuses on how your mind dynamically creates meaning and will selectively choose words and sentences that communicate your intention. Once we analyze this we can have a deeper understanding of our mind and languages. I am hoping that when we improve this skill, we can learn to articulate our conceptualizations in ASL more accurately. *Presented in ASL*
Name this! Learning and Identifying ASL and Linguistic Concepts Trivia Game
Come play a humorous game about ASL, linguistics, and the deaf community, in this interactive game format. Participants will be divided into teams, which will compete for points by providing the right answer to questions like: What does the mouth morpheme BRR mean? Does ASL have Be verbs? If you don’t know the answers to these questions, answers will be provided with demonstrations and examples. Be sure to pay attention as the same concept might reappear in a different question later in the game with even higher points at stake. Points may be redeemed for goods, services, and CEUs on the planet Eyeth *(transportation not provided by Wink)* *Presented in ASL*
Reframing Depiction: Construction Action, Dialogue, Surrogation and the like
Metzger (1995) observed in the early days of sign language linguistic research that, “there seems to be general agreement that signers use their body, head, and eye gaze to report the actions, thoughts, words, and expressions of characters within the discourse” (p. 256). However, these bodily actions didn’t come with a standardized name. Some called them gestures, pantomime, and role shifting, among other things. Metzger (1995) settled on the term constructed action due to Tannen’s 1986 typology of constructed actions and dialogues.
Constructed actions are the perceived actions that one attempts to recreate in space, however, they also may be fabricated actions from the signer’s mind. Nevertheless, the actions are construed in the signer’s mind for encoding using constructed action.
Dialogue is a type of constructed action, and surrogation is often used as a more general term for both. But does the body always report actions? Or is there another layer involved? This workshop is designed to demonstrate the body’s role in ASL depiction. In addition, useful techniques will be proposed to answer such questions as: who should be surrogated, what are the types of surrogation, and how does personification play a role?
Classifiers/Depicting Verbs reduced to three
How many classifiers/depicting verbs are there? Would you be surprised to know the list of classifiers can be simplified to only three different types? How do they work? What is going on in people’s minds when they use them? Will I ever learn how to use them!? Come and see a different approach to classifiers using a cognitive linguistics approach to understand the conceptual structures that give rise to classifier use in American Sign Language. Within this workshop focus will be given to Whole Entity constructions and how location, manner, and path are combined to construct depicting verbs. Instrument depicting verbs and Size and Shape Specifiers differ from whole entity depicting verbs. But how? One cognitive explanation can be found in what they foreground and what they background. How are these units stored in the lexicon and how are they made? In answering this question we will again turn to a cognitive explanation and will discuss one such proposal, the Analogue Building Model. In addition, we will study the body’s role with instrument classifiers constructions and how embodied experiences motivate these. Finally, we will also discuss how SaSS constructions also work with whole entity depicting verbs and how their progression through space illuminates how we perceive objects in the physical world. Analyzing how linguistic units and the conceptual perception of the world are related can help elucidate how and when to employ these items in our daily lives.
How to show and tell: Parsing, a new Practice model
Parsing is an innovative tool that gives interpreters and students a deliberate practice model to enhance their work. It forces users to break English form and to think critically about ASL when generating options for rendering an interpreted message in ASL.
Sign language interpreters seek message equivalency. The interpreter education landscape has historically focused on language acquisition, interpreting models, and other tools to assist second language users to become familiar with ASL grammar and provide techniques to provide message equivalency (Cokely, 1984. Lee, 1992). These sets of theoretical directions leave the user to make decisions without an explicit guide. The goal is to break the source message from its form and reconstruct the target message within the constraints of its linguistic system...but how?
When presented with a flowchart of guided questions, participants discover more effective and reproducible results in message comprehension and translation of the target language. This is parsing: to separate out and compartmentalize the message in order to unpack, understand, and practice English-to-ASL interpreting with detailed steps that utilize the interpreter’s abilities and knowledge of both languages.
This workshop will instruct participants on how to parse written English texts using a flowchart which will guide comprehension of the English text (and detachment from it) and provide structured choices for the target text. This deliberate practice provides the key to creating an internal framework for processed interpretation. With continued use and internalization of the process, participants will produce live work with more awareness and intentional choices for creating equivalent messages. *Presented in ASL*
“From one presenter to another, this workshop is an excellent opportunity to practice with such a masterful and engaging presenter.” - Keith Wann, CI/CT, NIC Master
Idioms! Do You See What I’m Saying?
English idioms can be an interpreter’s worst nightmare. However, idioms are a common form of expression, used with purpose. Interpreters are supposed to take a message and convey it with the speaker’s intent into a language most accessible to the receiver. If you revert to the receiver’s second language during the use of an idiom, the intention may be lost. Imagine interpreting the phrase, “there is more than one way to skin a cat.” When I was a kid, I signed that — almost verbatim — to my Deaf father. Let’s just say we spent an additional 15 minutes clearing up why the mechanic would want my dad to skin our cat. On the other hand, the intent can be lost when we try to convert the idiom to the lowest common denominator. An idiom is often used as a “period” to a sentence, which is part of the crucial information about that message that must come across to the receiver.
This workshop isn’t limited to only practicing these idioms. Rather, interpreting idioms becomes easier with a little theory to build these interpretations upon. This workshop demonstrates how to break down idioms by the meaning of the English expression, not by the individual words that are used. Participants will use the structures of both English and ASL to their benefit, as well as learn tools that will enable them to analyze these idioms and discuss best practices with regards to interpreting them. This will be accomplished by the use of dozens of samples, some of which have multiple meanings and various options for delivery. This workshop sets the groundwork for deconstructing English idioms in order to determine their core meaning and strategies to effectively interpret them into ASL concepts. *Presented in ASL*
Space Walk: Working Proposal for Tracking and using Depictive Space
Every one has been there: you set up a beautiful and visually clear scene, and are thrilled about your fantastic use of space. Then you want to introduce a new concept that doesn’t fit in your masterpiece. What do you do? How can you organize your space to make everything fit?
There is a tool that can help guide you to efficiently arrange visual concepts to make the most of your space: spatial frames. A major difference between English and ASL is that ASL uses space and kinetics in a 3-dimensional manifestation (Winston, 1995, 1996). The use of these spatial frames will help you to create a visual-spatial language. *Will even help interpreters*
Proper use of spatial frames allows for clearer depiction of comparisons and complex relationships. Instead of merely using body shifting or static listings which can limit detail or expansion, spatial frames allow creation of visual images with extensive detail without cluttering the visual field. They even have the flexibility to build ancillary spatial frames for additional information.
For example: An individual describes three houses he is considering buying. In the course of discussion, he lists details such as the locations of the houses, what each house looks like, and the pros and cons of each house. Creating three distinct spatial frames provides generous space for descriptive detail and allows for additions if the speaker retroactively adds them in future utterances. Likewise, if he includes contrasts, additional frames may be necessary.
This workshop introduces the concept of space frames with real world application on how to create and then transition between frames. Participants practice spatial techniques and guidelines to enhance their language use, applying a practical rubric to organize their thoughts and make the best use of their space. *Presented in ASL*
Deliberate practice, how?
What does it take to become an expert? The journey to being an expert brings practitioners to conferences, workshops, webinars, and mentoring to learn from peers who have devoted hours of research and constructed presentations to provide tools that can be taken home. However, passively listening to a lecture, reading a skill development book, and watching vlogs will not transform that practitioner into an expert, nor will working eighty hours a week. The key is to incorporate deliberate practice by identifying a goal that can be narrowed to the smallest unit of skill, and to practice that skill unit until it is mastered. After exhausting all possible ways of wringing learning from the practice, the next skill unit can be identified and practiced.
Researchers Simon & Chase (1973) point out that it can take up to a decade of deliberate practice to obtain this desired level of expertise. This workshop brings research from Simon and Chase, Ericsson, and Bloom to sign language interpreters to forever dispel the myth that mastery is unattainable. Diving into these researchers’ work has given Wink the resources needed to define how to create individualized deliberate practice regimens. He will discuss and model how to accomplish this.
Some may assume that fingerspelling is such a ubiquitous aspect of ASL that they have no more to learn about it. However, deliberate practice and research helps one gain a deeper understanding by way of breaking down this broad topic into distinct categorizations of lexical fingerspelling, and the functions of fingerspelling in conversational repair. Deliberate practice and research helps one gain a deeper understanding of the process. Likewise, more experienced interpreters may want to hone their non-manual signals (NMS). Ericsson's research (2006) shows that deliberate practice is not simply practicing things you already know. Instead, it requires digging deeper and learning the differences between lexicalized mouth morphemes (PAH, AF- FO) and modifiers (BRRR, SAO) as well as exploring the layers and grammatical complexity that fall under the umbrella of NMS (Bridges & Metzger, 1996).
This workshop breaks down how participants can analyze and identify their own goals for practice, demonstrates how to deliberately practice discrete linguistic aspects, and provides an opportunity to begin this process. *Presented in ASL*
Make the English Tangible in ASL
Have you ever received feedback that you should “show” more, and “tell” less? This is excellent advice, but a bit hard to follow without further explanation. Picture a train...What do you see? Now ask a friend to picture a train and have them explain or draw what they first saw. Is it the same image you had? Most likely not. Everyone, regardless of culture and language, pictures things differently in their heads. These variations in mental “seeing,” or construal, help account for the wide range of communication and language use we encounter every day.
This workshop applies visual-spatial techniques in order to better produce visual language. ASL has more than simple lexical signs and fingerspelling, which make up the “tell” options. Some of the “show” options come in the form of depiction. Depiction is a topic that has made quite a stir among researchers in ASL linguistics. It includes depicting verbs, surrogation, partitioning, blending, affect, mouth morphemes, other non-manual signals, and networking. Using these aspects of ASL, interpreters can create clear and powerful ASL messages that create a bridge between consumers.
When we see how Deaf people developed ASL, and how it has evolved into the complex language it is today, we see much of that was due to their subjective knowledge and experiences. This workshop encourages participants to think about the objects and required actions in a sentence in order to formulate an ASL concept based on their experiential views of the world, and do so without imposing their own biases. This framework takes English and makes it tangible in ASL. *Presented in ASL*
Blockbuster: Cinematic ASL
Have you ever seen an ASL story performance and thought, "That's like watching a movie!"? Television and film use certain conventions (often referred to as their "grammar") when recording and editing audiovisual media. ASL literature has been found to use the same types of conventions by ASL writers (Krentz, 2006. Bauman, 2006.) This workshop examines the parallels between cinematic techniques and ASL grammar conventions such as use of space, depiction, sign modification, and facial affect (Wink, 2011).
A common misconception is that Cinematic ASL is only used by ASL performers, so is only appropriate for theatrical interpreting. This is simply not true. Cinematic ASL techniques are used by native signers in a myriad of settings, and have numerous applications for interpreting: when discussing anatomy, conducting an interview in a legal setting, teaching history, or telling a story. One benefit in studying these techniques observed by past participants is the variety of options that this workshop presents. ASL messages can be composed of so much more than a few rote approaches.
Cinematic techniques used by the Deaf community in storytelling and conversation will enhance interpreters’ work as well. Incorporating these techniques and ASL grammatical features supports linguistic integrity in interpreted messages. If someone wants to create captivating “blockbuster” of ASL literature or stunning visual interpreting work, they must be aware of and practice these conventions.
In addition to learning how to produce such concepts expressively, it is imperative interpreters are able to recognize them receptively. ASL signers, including performers, commonly use techniques such as long shots, close ups, and panning shots to show action in ASL narratives. Once interpreters recognize cinematic techniques in action, they must also be able to deduce their intended function and purpose within the interaction. Without catching the cinematic action, an interpreter can misunderstand the interaction between referents, creating miscues.
This workshop includes some of the most important conventions for conveying meaning through particular camera and editing techniques (as well as some of the specialized vocabulary of film production) which relate directly to ASL’s use of space, depiction, eye gaze, and other parts of ASL grammar commonly employed by native ASL users. *Presented in ASL*
Layers! Applying Animation to ASL Construct
The field of American Sign Language linguistic has looked to other fields to enhance our understanding of various attributes of ASL. This interdisciplinary approach helps interpreters broaden their knowledge of and their outlook on ASL, allowing them to incorporate various tools into their products. Wink has studied the field of cartoon animation and computer generated images to find application for sign language interpreters. The process that animators go through to create their work of art is strikingly similar to how ASL images can be created and depicted.
Additionally, the practice that animators employ to enhance their skills can be applied to deliberate practice for interpreters. Animators often spend hours studying how objects work, move, look, and are expressed in order to deliver life-like attributes through a lifeless medium. If interpreters study these same techniques, they can see their work through the lens of an an animator rather than the headset of a sound technician. They can then expand their options to produce visually equivalent messages.
One of the greatest hurdles for interpreters is building depiction. Following the concepts of animation, we find that they build objects in layers. This process allows animators to build the object section by section to give it a more 3D appearance, and to simplify and organize the construction process. Once interpreters realize they have the ability to build the depiction with layers, they often find brilliant and innovative ways to produce the object, and the process becomes much more manageable.
Interpreters can draw on these animation principles to create visual images and to organize their thoughts. By applying techniques found in the animation text book “Animation, The Whole Story.” (Beckerman, 2012) augmented with examples from film, ASL performers, and interpreting material, this workshop provides interpreters with useful application and deliberate practice. *Presented in ASL*
Partition Zones: Show 5 Entities at the Same Time
Interpreters sometimes wish for an additional hand or the ability to summon a twin to complete a concept. Unfortunately, we currently do not have the technology or the magic to accomplish this. We therefore must rely on peer-reviewed linguistics.
The above wish can also be applied to showing two distinct concepts in tandem. “I walked into the room and everyone was starring at me!” can be produced as two separate concepts in isolation with role shifting and narration, but they can also be produced in a simultaneous display with the use of partitioning. ASL linguists have identified partitioning as designating a section of your space to represent another entity. This technique, native to ASL grammar, can help signers to better produce what is so clear in their mental landscape.
ASL linguist and chair of Gallaudet’s linguistics department, Paul Dudis, says in a 2004 paper, “Partitioning zones... their existence allows for the creative potential of signers during creation of real space blends.” We see how surrogating and then blending with other depiction techniques can crystalize the message. This workshop covers partitioning in various ways: manual articulators as partitionable zones, scales of blends, how onomatopoeias coincide with blends, and how non-manual signals can be partitioned. *Presented in ASL*